Folk Music of
Dr. A. Anuradha
Coordinator, Dept. of Music, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam
(Andhra Pradesh) - India
Phone : 94410-39033, email :
Folk music is one of the ancient forms of the
cultural heritage of India. ‘Every part of India has its own culture and
traditions, developed according to the taste of the people of that
particular part. Thus, the combination of singing songs, instruments and
dance is called as ‘Desi music’. This is stated by the ancient
Musicologists and the word Desi paved a way to the study of several
‘Desi’ type of arts.
Dese dese janaanam
yadruchyaa hridaya ranjakam !
Geetam cha vaadanam nrittam
tat deseetyabhi dheeyate !!
Andhra Pradesh is a beautiful land of thick forests, high-range
mountains, streams, rivers and green fields. The entire state is
bordered by the elegant coastal corridor on one of its sides. Andhra
Pradesh is a land with rich Cultural Heritage. There exists a large
diversity in the life style of its people. Each region has its own
nativity and specialty with different cultures and traditions. It is the
4th largest state in the country in terms of its area and 5th largest
one in population. Geographically Andhra is studied under three heading
viz., Coastal Andhra, Rayalaseema and Telangana. These three regions
have their own styles of cultures and traditions which vary from one
another. This variation can also be observed in the folk arts which are
a part of the cultural treasure. Studying folk arts of Andhra is an
interesting as well as a deep subject to deal with. It is expected that,
in entire Andhra Pradesh there exist 33 kinds of Tribes like Kuruva,
Chenchu, Eruka, Bairagi, Golla, Koya, Jangam, Bhillu, Savara etc. The
history of folk art forms of Andhra Pradesh is as old as the history of
Generally, performing folk arts are of three types viz., folk music,
folk dance and folk drama. Music and lyric are the main content of these
three. Very few of them like Naagini dance, Tiger dance etc., are devoid
of lyrics. There are nearly 200 such folk art forms noticed in Andhra
Pradesh. Some of them deal with singing, instrumental music and dance
and some with singing accompanied with instruments. The main purpose of
these art forms is entertainment.
The people of Andhra Pradesh speak Telugu, which is greatly praised as
‘Italian of the East’. Villages occupy a major portion of the state. The
main profession of the people is cultivation. As everywhere else in the
world, singing songs while doing any kind of work is a practice of the
villagers of Andhra also. Music is a tool to get relief from their
stress and strain, and to gain vigor during their work time. Most of
their songs are related to God as they have a philosophical and
devotional bent of mind.
The lifestyle of folk people is as simple as their art forms are. These
songs are sung in simple tunes with a limited compass and with easy
rendering. The basic feature of folk music is oral expression and the
presentation of this form is completely original and has not changed in
any form. Though Andhra Pradesh is divided into different regions,
linguistically it is still one. There are hundreds of folk songs spread
all over the state.
The main components of these folk songs are lyric, music and rhythm.
Based on the lyrics and the occasions, folk music can be studied under
several headings viz. occupational songs, agricultural songs, moral
songs, devotional songs on special occasions etc. Every heading has
again several sub divisions. There are innumerable songs like
philosophical songs, women’s songs, devotional songs, function-songs
like marriage songs, ritualistic songs, cradling songs, humorous songs,
epic or mythological songs, children’s songs etc. Thus, study of folk
music or songs is a vast subject of interest.
Under the heading of Occupational songs, several types of folk songs are
popular in Andhra... like farmers’ songs, fishermen’s songs, palanquin
songs etc, These songs are sung by a group of people at the work place
in order to forget their tiresomeness and to lighten their stress.
Generally, these songs are not normally accompanied by any instruments
and are sung only by the workers.
Sraamika or labour songs: These are known as songs sung by
different categories of workers while doing their work, such as
cart-pullers, industrial workers, stone crushers, construction workers,
and workers engaged in laying roads, building bridges and dams. They
find pleasure in their work and do not feel it a burden.
Women’s songs: These are usually rendered by women in the houses
while attending to the daily chores. These songs have been in existence,
for thousands of years. It is learnt that a famous composer Anamacharya
wrote hundreds of folk songs in Telugu during the 14th century. These
songs are very popular in every part of Andhra. Rokati paatalu (wooden
pestle songs), Tirugali paatalu (hand-mill songs), songs while making
butter from the curd by using churning-staff etc. One such song is-
“Atta leni kodaluttamuralu Oyammaa
Kodalleni atta gunavanturaalu
aa-hoom - aa- hoom.”
The meaning of the above song is very funny, stating that
‘daughter-in-law without her mother-in-law is considered to be very good
in manners and same would be the case with the mother-in-law, without
the daughter-in-law. These songs are also called Suvvi paatalu. Folk
songs provide not only recreation and relief. The word “Suvvi” or
“aa-hum” gives rhythm to the songs. They are very popular and composed
in the raga Mohana (Bhoop in Hindustani Music). It runs in Trisra gati
(three notes on a beat). These songs are in the form of questions and
answers, between two women, which are very interesting. They enjoy every
moment of it.
The notation of the song runs as follows,
p p p - p p p - p d p - g r g - s s r - , G!
s r g - p p r - r g r - s r d – S,
Kodalle ni Atta - gunavantu-.
ra. - lu . - , r d - S, !!
There are hundreds of folk songs relating to agricultural songs sung on
different occasions like, praying for rains, ploughing, sowing seeds,
transplanting, weeding, planting of sprouts and harvesting etc. All
these songs have some supporting words like, ‘siluka rekka poolo,
uyyaalo, sandamaamayyo, allo nerello, venniyyallo’ etc. and the names of
their favorite deities Lord Rama and Sita are also found in the lyric. A
song on the occasion of sowing seeds popular in the Telangana region is-
“Seetamma Sreeramulu - siluka rekka poolo
Saarellipovangaa - siluka rekka poolo
Sreelakshmi kondhandaa - siluka rekka poolo
Yemanni lepudu - siluka rekka poolo”
Former songs hold a very important place in the history of folk
music of Andhra. The farmers, those days used to sing folk songs
invoking and praising the Rain God to give sufficient rainfall for them
to have a very good harvest. The famous song, praying for Rain God is-
“Vaanallu kuravaali vaana devudaa –
vari chelu pandaali vaana devudaa”.
It is set in Trisra gati Eka tala. The above two songs used to be
sung in the major notes (svaras). Men and women would be divided into
two groups while working in the fields and they would engage themselves
by singing and humming melodious folk songs till they finished the day’s
work. These folk songs have a place even in their daily life. As Andhra
Pradesh is divided into four zones socially and culturally, the lyrics
as well as the pronunciation and the accents of these songs, vary from
one area to another.
Fishermen community is very famous for its folk music. Andhra Pradesh
has 950 kms of coastal area and many rivers like Godavari, Krishna,
Pennar, Tungabhadra etc, with a lot of scope for fishing, which is one
of the main source of living for the people of those areas. Fishermen’s
folk songs have gained universal acclaim and many professional folk
singers have rendered them across the globe. Late Mr. Sampath Kumar is a
reputed artist in this field of singing of fishermen songs. Usually,
fishermen sing these songs either in a group or individually. The songs
are really enjoyable to listen, though they sing with rough and rustic
voices. One of the famous fishermen songs in Telugu is-
“Hailessa hailoo hailessa -
haiyaaree joorsee hamsalanti padavaraa
Vayyaram volakabosera chinnoda -
terechapa paiki yettara.”
In this song, the fisherman happily sings and compares his boat with
a beautiful royal bird, Swan. In another song, in a detachment mood, he
questions himself in a philosophic way-
“Gattekketunda a naa naava -
kallola jaladhilo munigipotundaa”.
It means, ‘can my boat (life) reach the shore without getting sunk
in the disturbed ocean?’
There are numerous songs in villages which appear in day to day life,
sung on different occasions. Village festivals (jataras), etc, which are
celebrated in a grand way in the villages have a touch of folklore in
the songs, dances and devotional songs etc.. There are several songs
popular in the ritualistic festivals. The songs sung by the gurus or the
priests of the village temples have very good moral values. For
Kondathalliki jatara seedham- nindu
manasutoo mokkulu eedham kallakapatam
porapochalu vadileese thalli mammu
The great Saint composers, Annamacharya (14th cent.) and Tyagaraja
(19th cent.) have written and sung many devotional songs besides the
daily worshipping songs on their favorite deities. An example for
awakening of Lord Vishnu, (known as Melkolupu Paatalu), Annamayya’s a
Vinnapalu venavale - vintha vintalu
pannagapu domatera - paiketha velaya” . (Bhupala raga)
In the same vein Tyagaraja’s song-
Melukovayya-mammueluko – Sri Rama
Melaina Seetha sametha-na bhagyama” -- (Bouli raga)
A traditional awakening song of Goddess Gangamma, presiding deity of
Melukonave Ganga maataa – melu konave.
It is interesting to note that a few traditional folk tunes are
found in the songs of some classical composers. For example, an old folk
song tuned in Ananda bhairavi raga in Khanda chapu tala is in Saint
Tyagaraja’s Divyanama keertana, with the same tune.
Kasturi Ranga Rangaa – maa yanna
Kaaveti ranga rangaa
Sree ranga ranga rangaa – ninu baasi
yetlu ne marachunduraa.
Similar tune of Tyagaraja’s song is-
Ksheera saagara vihaaraa – aparimita
ghora paataka vidaaraa
Kroorajana gana vidooraa- nigama san
chaara sundara sareeraa.
This is a very popular and pleasant tune. Every song not only deals
with devotion, but also the social customs. In his very popular song
“Tandanana ahi tandanana” , Annamayya condemns the social evils like
caste, colour and creed discrimination and teaches the people that
“Brahma mokkate-parabrahma mokkate”. It means God, who dwells in
every soul is one. This song is full of spirituality, expressed in
very simple words and is easily understood even by a lay man.
Normally, in the villages all are busy with their own occupations during
the day. So, they assemble in a temple during night to discuss the
problems of the village. On such occasions they engage themselves in
singing songs, with devotional feelings and community welfare as their
content. Sometimes it may be a single man show. Everyone takes part
irrespective of the age, caste or creed. They organize group Taala
Bhajans or Chekka Bhajans and such type of devotional entertainment
programmes. They sing devotional songs in Antiphonal way. This type of
songs are easily accessible to everyone and can be rendered without much
difficulty. Each song will have an ending “Sree madramaa ramana
Govido Hari” in Homophonic way. One such song is-
Eetadokka demudanta – eesaamu kella
nallani volluvadanta- vontininda namalanta
bulligedda nekkananta –
This is in praise of Lord Vishnu and says that He is the Lord of the
Universe. This song is in a pleasant raga Mayamalava goula with Desadi
tala and is very simple. Another song of such type is-
Siva siva murthivi gananadha-neevu
Sivuni kumarudavu gananadha.
Telangana and Rayalaseema are also famous for traditional folk
music. Many devotional songs are written and rendered on the presiding
deity of many parts of Telangana region, Bathukamma, the incarnation of
Ex: “Bathukamma bathukamma vuyyaloo- bangaru bathukamma vuyaloo”.
The other Festivals wherein folk music has an important place is during
“Sammakka - Sarakka Jatara” at Eturnaagaaram, in Warangal Dist,
and Mahankali Jataras that are organized during the month of Ashadham,
at different places in Hyderabad District.
Rayalaseema, is known as a treasure of folk songs and folk art forms.
The following is an example for devotional songs on the Goddess Gangamma,
Nilu nilu Gangammaa talli,
niluva vammaa Gangammaa talli
Nee valla bratikemu memu .........”
Northern part of Andhra Pradesh is famous for several Tribes and
folk people. The people live in the coastal area. The fishing community
worships several Gods. In the coastal area of Visakhapatnam they pray to
Sea Godess as an incarnation of Gangamma, to save their lives. Every
year they pay offerings to Her and worship. On that occasion, they sing
several folk songs on the deity.
Folk songs are educative to the masses, and indicative of the social
Children songs: The songs sung by the mothers, to their children
to sleep or cajole them when they are afraid of something or the other
are innumerable and each one of them has a very good lyrical value. The
song “Jo atchutananda jojo mukunda-raara paramaananda Rama Govinda”
is one of such examples, and it is ever lasting as a mother’s lullaby
traditionally sung in a soft raga Nilambari in Khanda Chapu taala (2+3).
This is also a song of Annamacharya, and is a master piece of the
composer sung for centuries. Similar to this, there are two more songs,
“Ramalali megha shyamalali - taamarasa nayana - Dasaradha tanaya lali”.
These are very famous lullabies in Andhra, traditionally sung over
Songs by Children: Village children are the centre of attraction
during the village festivals and other occasions. Even 2, 3 year old
children sing with their tender and sweet voices in Telugu. The songs
like, “Chitti chilakamma, Udataa udataa hooth” etc, are popular
in Andhra, for over many years. They are very rhythmic in rendition and
the dance carried out to these songs is eye-catching. Some of the
regular songs of the young girls sung daily are-
Kaalla gajji kankaalamma
vegula chukka- velaga mogga.
This song is not only an entertainer, but also has a lyrical value.
Behind this lyric, there are some names of Ayurvedic medicines mentioned
for certain diseases.
Vaana vaana vallappa
vaanalu musire vallappaa.
This is a song, where village children sing and play joyously in the
rain. There are several such songs popular in the villages of Andhra.
A song by the girls by clapping and rotating in circular way is-
Chemmachekka- chaaradesi mogga-
attlupoyanga - aaraginchanga and
Oppula kuppaa – vayyari bhaamaa
Actually, all these songs mentioned cannot be said as songs, but are
verses with a rhythm. Children recite them in a rhythmic way.
Indian culture has a high place in the world-history, dating back to
thousands of years. The festivals may be different, marriage-traditions
may be different and Temple customs may be different, but from the just
born baby to the octogenarian, every religious function is performed
with utmost veneration. At all stages, folk music, instruments and
dances have a place of importance in the rituals.
Occasional songs: During Winter especially in January, the
villagers, as it is the end of their agricultural toil they harvest
their crops and get money. They celebrate the major festival of the year
‘Pongal’ for three days in a grand manner. A month from mid-December to
mid-January is called Dhanurmasam, which is deemed as very sacred.
During this time many types of folk art forms are performed by the young
girls, like Gobbillu, Bommala koluvulu (exhibition of dolls, toys etc.).
Girls make designs called Rangoli with flour in the front-yard of the
house. A popular song on Gobbillu is-
Gobbiyyallo – Gobbiyyallu – Sankranti
Pandagocchhe - Gobbiyyallu.
Young girls sing and dance around the Gobbillu (lumps of cow-dung
treated as representative of the deity, … shown in the photo) clapping
their hands. These Gobbi songs are traditional and very popular in every
village of Coastal Andhra. Besides these, there are several folk art
forms performed by the beggar- singers. Haridasulu, Gangireddu laata,
Pagati vesha gaalu, Komma dasarulu are a few to mention. Haridasaas are
a kind of singers with a sacred appearance singing devotional songs on
Lord Hari, with the Tambura in one hand and kartals in other hand.
This is a season for ritualistic celebrations to the Goddesses of
villages, known as Jaatara-s. In the celebrations, many wild offerings
are made to the Goddesses and many folk art forms are performed in the
presence of the deities. These celebrations vary from one place to
Marriage songs: Coming to the folk music at the time of
marriages, everyone will try to make the occasion a unique event by
participating in dancing and singing. A great variety of songs are
rendered at different events that take place in the wedding. There are
different occasions in a wedding when different songs are sung from
‘engagement to sending the bride to the mother-in-law’s house.
Generally, folk people compare the Bride groom and Bride to Lord Rama
and Sita, who are the role models to Indians. This is the reason why
many of the marriage songs are on Rama and Sita. A very popular marriage
song in Andhra is-
Aananda maananda maayenu –
mana Ramayya pendli kodukaayenu
Aananda maananda maayenu –
mana Sitamma e pendli koothuraayenu.
and another popular and traditional song in Sankarabharana raga in
Khanda Chapau taala song is-
Lakshmi kalyaana vaibhogame-
Sita kalyaana vaibhogame.
At the wedding the old ladies of the house sing songs by praying to
God to bless the new couple with a happy and long life.
Sree Mahaa Vishnuvunu boli
Taamara tamparalai tavili dampatulu.....
Kadu vedukala cheta kadupu challagagaanu
kodukula kotavai komarondavamma.....
kalakaa makhila bhogamula vardhillu”
The bridegroom’s party generally holds an upper hand and always try
to make fun of the bride’s party, of course, in a lighter vein. Here
also a number of folk songs are rendered by both the parties in
different ragas and talas of folk nature. There are plenty of songs
popular in Coastal Andhra. For example, a song by the bridegroom’s
party, criticizing the bride’s party-
“Yelaagu bhonchetumo -
ee vindu may maylaagu bhonchetumo
Chhaalaa pellillaaye eelaati vindu
may maylaagu bhonchetumo.
Love songs: Several romantic or love songs are also popular
in folk songs of Andhra Pradesh. A popular example of such songs is-
Mokka jonna thotalo musina cheekatlalo
Manche kaada kalusuko maruvaku maamayya.
In this song, a young girl invites her fiancé to the maize fields to
meet her at dusk and demands that he should not forget her invitation.
Responsorial songs : Another interesting form is the verbal
discussion between two people, set in a folklore way. The conversation
is in the form of a song and it may be between the mother-daughter or
wife and husband or mother- in-law and daughter- in-law or between
lovers. For example, a conversational song between a young couple-
Male: Rupai kaavaalaa- rupai sillara kaavaala
Female: Roopu rekaa sallangunte rupai yenduku rupai sillara
In this song, the lady expresses that ‘the love and affection for
her husband is more than money’. This is a best example for their plain
and simple way of living.
Epic songs : Coming to epical songs, there are hundreds of songs
on Ramayana, Bharata and Bhaagavata in folk style. Here is an example of
a traditional folk song related to the epic Bhagavata. The content is
complaints made by the gopikas against Krishna in his early childhood
about his naughty deeds.
O Yasoda yemi seyudune –
nee koduku dudukulaku
Then, Yasoda gets angry with the women and doesn’t agree with them.
She supports her child. This is beautifully depicted in a song, written
Kaanarate – pencarate katakataa biddalan
Nenu mee valene kanti neyyamaina biddanu.
The romantic songs between Lord Krishna and the Gopikas (girls) were
of folk nature. These scenes were illustrated by many poets romantically
in the form of folk songs. The pranks played by Krishna have been
visualized in a beautiful manner by many composers.
Philosophical (Vedaanta and Vairagya) songs : Devotional and
spiritual content delivering good messages to the society is rendered by
many in folk music.. There are several philosophical songs known as ‘Tattvaalu’,
frequently sung in the villages of Andhra Pradesh. One such song is-
Vastavottide potaavottide aasa yendukantaa
Chesina punyamu chedani padaarthamu cherunu nee venta.
It means, ‘nothing comes and nothing goes with man. Nothing remains.
So why this unnecessary greed! What ultimately remains is only the
Dharma.’ Many sages or sage-poets have tried to reach people with their
teachings in folk style, so that they could be understood even by the
Folk songs also deal with pathetic, sorrowful, philosophical and jovial
Pallavi or the introductory phrase of a song is very important for folk
music. In some songs, the Pallavi and Charanams are in continuation of
the same content and in some cases they are of contrasting nature. Men
and women are usually divided into two groups and the song generally
seems like questions and answers. One group sends a question and the
other group answers supporting its own stand. This is carried out in a
very interesting manner and is enjoyed by the audience.
Traditional folk songs are normally in the ancient ragas are like,
Bhupala, Bouli, Mohana, Nadanamakriya, Bhupala, Bhouli, Neelambari,
Janjhuti, Navaroj, Saindhavi, Anandabhairavi, Yedukula Kambhoji, Mukhari,
and Sankarabharanam set to simple talaas like Aadi, Rupaka, Khanda, Eka,
Misra etc. Vinjamuri Seetha and Anasuya have done a lot of research
about these ragas for Telugu folk music. Some folk songs have a limited
compass and are sung in just 3 or 4 notes and it is difficult to assess
to which raga the particular song belongs.
Folk music is blended with our lives, even without our knowledge. Then
there are these gypsies, who do not stay at a particular place
continuously for a long period. They keep moving from one place or the
other for their livelihood, according to the seasons. This community is
very good at singing folk songs. They belong to every part of Andhra
Pradesh and they carry with them their traditions and customs and their
folk music as well thereby conveying them to the people of the new place
where they choose to stay for some time. That’s why desi music
traditions like kolatam, Chekka Bhajans have gained popularity in the
villages during festivals and temple rituals. Along with folk music,
folk dance also has journeyed together in the history of folk tradition
of Andhra Pradesh. One of the most popular kolaatam songs in coastal
‘Krishnamma gopalabaala krishnamma-
yadu nanda kumara baala krishnamma.
This song has been in prevalence for ages and sung in a traditional
and popular Raga Mukhari in Aadi taala. It is sung in all the festivals
and temple rituals of most of the villages of Godavari Districts-
Krishnaya tandry O Krishnaya tandry –
maa kashtamule teerchavayaa krishnaya tandry
Lobha moha madamulane krishnaya tandry
Naa naava eedhuchunndayaa krishnaya tandry.
The above song is not only a devotional one, but also a
philosophical song, normally sung in the raga Janjhooti. The tune of
this particular folk song has been modified and is used in different
styles in cinemas also.
Many tribes like Chenchu, Dasari, Baind, Jangama, Kuruva and others
propagate Folk songs. More importance is given to folk songs or their
expression than the dance component. There is always a main singer
supported by two or three chorus singers. In the olden days Tambura or
Tuntuni or Ektaar was the main drone Instrument. Sometimes it is also
accompanied by Harmonium and a drum to provide rhythm. In some parts of
Andhra Clarinet is played instead of Harmonium.
Budige jangam kathas, Oggu kathas, Jangam Kathas, Burra Katha, Jamukula
kathas, Golla Suddulu, Kommu people, etc are some extraordinary story
telling ways, in Telugu literature in the form of songs. The performers
are generally 3 or 4 in number.
There are some other art forms like Seva garidi and Tappeta gullu, which
are very popular in Northern part of Coastal Andhra. They are considered
as sacred art forms and the performers are devotees of Lord Vishnu.
These are the art forms where Music, lyric and , Dance play equal role.
In these forms, the main singer is accompanied by a group, singing and
dancing with ghungroos tied to their legs. In Seva garidi, people play
with huge Chimbals (Brahma taal). They sing, “Harihari narayana aadi
narayana- karuninchi mammelu kamala lochanudaa” moving around a
In Rayalaseema, several types of musical forms exist. A few to mention
are Golla suddulu, Goravalu belonging to Kuruva tribe. They are devotees
of Lord Siva. They feel themselves as Lord Siva. They have their own way
of dressing and wearing ornaments. They wear a Trisul, Conch, Dhamaruk
(the ornaments of Lord Siva in Hindu mythology) and Ghungroos. They sing
songs in praise of Lord Siva.
In Telangana, several Art forms like Oggu katha-s, Jangam kathas,
Jamidika kathas, Baikani songs are very popular singing art forms
popular in Telangaana. Burra kathas are very popular in Andhra.
Folk music contains natural elements like lyric, raga, tala and
instrumental assistance. It does not have the features that are
essential in the traditional classical music. Folk songs that are sung
as a part of the stories generally do not require instruments. But they
are as melodious as traditional music. It is the same with folk dance
also. Bharata Munni, the exponent of the Natya Sashtra, explained four
types of instruments used in music or dance, these are (i) Stringed
instruments (ii) Percussion instruments (iii) Wind Instruments (iv)
Metallic Instruments. There are several folk instruments, used as
accompaniments. They are, Folk Veena (known as sarada), Gummetas, Titti,
Kommu, Brahma Taal, Chirutalu (a kind of Kartaals), Tribal Flute, Tribal
Shehnai, Jamidika, Veeranam, Daph, Metallic Cymbals, Dholak, Andelu,
Dhamaru, Conch, Bells, and Ghungroos etc.
Thus, folk music of Andhra Pradesh is a vast subject which has a great
scope to study and to conduct research on it. Everyone should remember
that today’s culture has its roots in the ancient folklore. It is the
responsibility of every individual, to safeguard and preserve it for
* * *
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Garnthavali publishers, Rajahmundry, 1968.
2. Jayadev, Marriboyina, Yadavula Janapada kalalu, Padmavati publishers,
3. Krishnaareddy, Chigicherla, Chigicherla jaanapada kalaa poopaalu,
Lakshmi publishers, Hyderabad,2008.
4. Radhakrishna Murty, Mikkilineni, Telugu very Janapadakalaa roopaalu,
Telugu University publications, Hyderabadd, 1992.
5. Sambamurty, P, South Indian Music (Vols III & VI), The Indian Music
Publishing House, Madras, 1983.
6. Sita, Vinjamuri, Karshaka – Kaarmika janapada geyaalu, PS Telugu
University, Hyderabad, 2006.
7. Sundaram, RVS, Andhrula Janapada Vigjnanam, PS Telugu University
Publications, Hyderabad, 2004.
8. Venkatesam, NR, Budige Jangaalu, Divya Deepti Publications,
9. Venkatesam, NR, Budga Jangam Darsini, Divya Deepti Publications,
–music of India
*Special thanks to Prof. M. Jayadev, Dept. of Telugu, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam, Sri V.V. Ramadoss, Bangalore and Sri D. Sainath,
Visakhapatnam for their cooperation.
(Published in Kafla Intercontinental
- Jan-April 2013)